|Elaborative Interrogation. Prompting children to answer ‘why’ questions can facilitate learning.||Ask Questions. The teacher’s questions can help children practise new information and connect new material to their prior learning.||Check for Understanding. Checking for understanding at each point can help children learn material with fewer errors.|
|Cognitive Load. We can only process so much new information at a time. We have a limited working memory that can be overwhelmed...||Daily Review. Daily review is an important component of instruction as it can strengthen previous learning and lead to fluent recall.||Pair Words With Graphics. Words and pictures are better than words alone...|
|Independent Practice. Provide for extensive and successful independent practice both in and outside of the classroom.||Provide Models. Children need cognitive support such as modelling and the teacher thinking aloud as he/she demonstrates to help them learn to solve problems or perform tasks.|| Provide Scaffolds for Difficult Tasks. Provide the children with temporary supports and scaffolds to assist them when they learn difficult tasks.
|Present Material in Small Steps. Our working memory, where we process information, is small and can only handle a few bits of information at once. Therefore, do not overwhelm children by presenting too much new material at once.||Retrieval Practice. Focus on getting information out rather than just always in. Through the act of retrieval our memory is strengthened and forgetting is less likely to occur.||Alternating Solved and Unsolved Problems. Teachers often spend part of a lesson demonstrating how to solve a problem and then have the children solve similar problems for the remainder...|
|Beliefs About Intelligence. Beliefs about intelligence are important predictors of children’s behaviour in school. children are more motivated if they believe that their intelligence and ability can be improved through hard work and effort.||You Need to Know Facts to Solve Problems. We have a working memory (the limited system where we consciously process new information) and a long-term memory (the storage system that holds the vast majority of our knowledge).||What Children Already Know Affects Their Learning. Children come to classrooms with knowledge based on their everyday experiences, intuitions, and what they have been previously taught.|
|Effective Feedback is Essential to Acquiring New Knowledge and Skills. We have a working memory (the limited system where we consciously process new information) and a long-term memory (the storage system that holds the vast majority of our knowledge).|